TQM Implementation Phases:
Implementation of total quality management in organizations it is not an easy job, it needs a long time to complete its phases. Total Quality management is a developed philosophy of management which target to improve product quality to satisfy customer. TQM phases can be briefed in the following stages:
.1 The Preparation Phase:
The first phase of implementation of total quality management is about primary preparation of organizational environment to adopt TQM. After taking the decision of implementing total quality management in the organization there are many problems emerge which need study analysis to create a peaceful atmosphere for executing the next phases.
The preparation phase consists of the following activities:
o Taking the decision of implementation of total quality management by the high level management.
o The commitment of high level management to implement TQM and undergoing continual improvement.
o Taking the decision to have external consultant in TQM or depending on the staff of the firms in the field of quality.
o Constituting Quality Council which must contain some of high management members to increase the effectiveness of its decisions.
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1- Joseph Jablonski, Implementing Total quality Management: An over-view,(Cal: Pfielder and Co. 1996) P 29
o Creating culture that supports change and quality concept.
o Forming quality teams from different departments and sections in the organization to achieve common objectives and delegating these teams by the required authorities to effectively achieve their objectives and goals.
o Providing and executing training programs about quality for high level management and quality council.
o Constitution of principles of job and customers satisfaction and undergo the primary measurement in this field.(1)
126.96.36.199.2 The Planning Phase: (2)
The planning phase is the phase that follows the preparation for implementation of total quality management and providing the convenient environment for TQM. In this phase the collected data in preparation phase will be utilized in planning for implementation process. Also Deming Cycle which known as PDCA as in fig (2.2.3) will also in the planning. (3)
Khaled Saeed stated that the planning phase builds the initial foundation of transformation and change in organization. In this phase the members of quality council developed and use the collected data in the preparation phase to start the precise planning phase. (4)
The planning phase includes many activities, the important ones of them are:
o Analysis of internal environment to determine powerful and weak elements.
o Analysis of external environment to assess the expected risks and the available investment opportunities for more proactive policies.
o Formulation of leadership vision that reflect aspiration of the firm in coming years which vary between five to ten years.
o Formulation of organization mission through the justification of its existence i.e. the activities that practiced by the firm and the targeted markets.
o Formulation of long-term strategic objectives and goals to be compatible with the organization’s mission as well as constituting policies which help in achieving the goals.
o The selection of quality manager who is responsible about all activities regarding total quality management.
o Implementation of training programs to the different teamwork in the subjects related quality, cooperation and activities of team work.
o Study of customers' expectations and their requirements regarding the required quality.
o Designing the execution plans for the next phase taking in consideration the material and human resources available in the organization.
The total quality planning in this phase can be divided into three essential levels:
1. The strategic planning for quality which includes environment analysis and formulation of vision, mission, goals and objectives.
2. planning of product quality which starts from work process and its requirements and ending in the required measurement for employee satisfaction,
3. Planning of processes quality according to specifications that already stated by the firm.(1)
188.8.131.52.3 The Implementation phase:
In this phase there will the actual execution of the formulated plans in which the groups of teamwork start the required organizational change throughout their assigned duties to fulfill the planned goals and objectives. In this phase also the staff training will start advocated by total quality management. The teamwork in this phase suggests the ways of continual improvement for activities and processes in the firm. In implementation phase the organization faces many administrative and technical problems, therefore the firm will use problems solution tools such as the cause and effect map, Burrito analysis, Control maps etc.(1)
4 The Evaluation and Control Phase:
The evaluation phase is the phase in which the firm constitutes the control systems to evaluate the exerted efforts for implementing TQM. The control system might be based on simultaneous control, or phase control, in addition to pre-control system and post control system. The firm in quality control mainly depends on the feedbacks from customer's survey where the organization focuses on the extent of satisfaction of customer requirement. The main objective of total quality control is to produce a quality that:
o Satisfies the customer.
o Is as a cheap as possible?
o can be achieved in time to meet delivery requirements
Satisfying the customer, rather than producing a high quality as possible. It is positively undesirable to produce high quality product than the necessary one, if as a result we have to increase our selling price or delay deliveries. (2)
An efficient quality control system for any type of production should be base on five stages.
1. Set the quality standard or quality design required by customer.
2. Plan to achieve the required quality. This will involve:
o Planning methods.
o Planning equipments.
o Obtaining satisfactory materials.
o Selecting and training operators.
o Planning inspection and shop floor quality control*.
3. Manufacture right first time.
4. correct any quality deficiencies
5. Provide for long-term quality control and planning.(1)
5 The Advanced Phase: (2)
This phase is considered as more advanced phase in the implementation of total quality management in which the organization reaches a degree of implementation that qualifies it to exemplify a model for organizations that implement TQM. In this phase the firm invites the organizations that deal with total quality management issues to see its achievement and the used ways of continual improvement in the firm. It also invites the managers and supervisors in quality circles and sections that participate in the implementation of total quality management in the firm.
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